The post office was established August 12, 1870. The nearby Bucher Bridge is on the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1877, the Florence, El
Dorado, and Walnut Valley Railroad Company built
a branch line from Florence to El
Dorado, in 1881 it was extended to Douglass,
and later to Arkansas City. The line was leased and operated by
the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe
Railway. The line from Florence to El
Dorado was abandoned in 1942. The original branch line connected Florence, Burns, De Graff, El Dorado, Augusta, Douglass, Rock, Akron, Winfield, Arkansas City.
On Aug 24, 1978, the town was
evacuated when a major oxidizer spill at a Titan II ICBM site (533-7) 2.5 miles
south of the town. The spill
resulted in the deaths of 2 Airmen that were based out of the 381st Strategic
Missile Wing, McConnell AFB,
approximately 20 miles away.
In 2010, the Keystone XL Pipeline was constructed about 2.5 miles west
of Rock, north to south through Butler
County, with much controversy over tax exemption and environmental concerns (if
a leak ever occurs). A pumping station named Rock was built along the pipeline.